This chapter covers the Modern Era. To provide resources for an expanded curriculum and diversified pedagogy the chapter includes bibliographies and a discography focusing on composers of the era and relevant scholarship in areas including the legacy of colonialism and global studies in of classical music. Lesson One covers Chinese-American composer Chou Wen-Chung and his Suite for Harp and Wind Quintet. Analytical commentaries address his technique and aesthetic, describing his modernist treatments of musical material suggestive of Chinese folk song. The analytical notes are accompanied with an examination of the relationship with his teacher and mentor, Edgard Varese. His connections to contemporary chamber ensembles (such as the Brentano String Quartet) and the U.S.-China Arts Exchange position him as an ambassador who valued the musical cultures of both the East and the West. Lesson Two compares different depictions of American nationalism using the music of Florence Price and Aaron Copland as a case study. The importance of each composer to different networks of marginalized people (Price was part of the Chicago Renaissance, and Copland championed gay musicians) is explored, in addition to the political uses of Copland’s music, and the reasons behind Price’s erasure and recent popularity.