The core of Marland’s working definition of pastoral care was looking after the total welfare of the pupil. Currently, the notion of pastoral care continues alongside a heightened interest in addressing students’ mental health and emotional wellbeing. This chapter focuses on how mental health and emotional well-being are becoming more embedded in educational settings, both through the subject areas which form a recognised part of the school curriculum and all the other activities that go on in a school and are part of pupils’ wider experiences. The National Citizen Service brings together young people from different backgrounds and helps them develop greater confidence, self-awareness and responsibility. It encourages personal and social development by working on skills like leadership, teamwork and communication. Personal, social, health and economic (PSHE) education is in the odd position of being a non-statutory subject, but the government expects all schools in England to make provision for it.