ABSTRACT

This chapter draws on some general conclusions about broader things, including some big concepts like history and modernity. It discusses case studies are of an Ancient Greek play and a spiritual prose life story often classed as the first English-language autobiography. A European Jewish writer like Isaac Bashevis Singer produced literature in Yiddish which also reached a global audience in translation into English and numerous other languages contributing to him winning the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978 – perhaps the ultimate marker of success in ‘world literature’. Mulholland aims to decentre the English language, but he writes from a privileged position in the Anglophone academic and publishing world, close to its 2020s centre. Middle English writers have all been transmitted to us through the works of scholars and philologists in the nineteenth century and since who have worked to establish stable printed texts of manuscripts that went through scribal changes during their life before the era of print.