One of the achievements of poststructuralism is a readiness to push beyond standard interpretations and to detect more than one voice in a text. The attraction of such an approach to feminism is clear: if the production and reception of dominant methods of signification are governed by patriarchal interests, then poststructuralism offers much scope for uncovering a submerged feminine voice. If the embodied voices of women can surmount patriarchal expectations, then the production of gender identity is not as seamless as sometimes suggested. Music, like any other cultural activity, cannot exist completely outside of the gender norms of its time, but it can offer an arena in which to explore other subjectivities. The logic of binary exclusion Kramer pursues indicates that a blend of psychoanalysis and gender theory provides powerful resources for understanding how music is gendered, how it is valued, and how the voices it embodies can be read and, if necessary, reconstructed.