Let us begin this study of the evolution of economics in Japan by considering the stark words of Takeuchi Kei, a perceptive analyst of contemporary economic ideas:

When we speak of ‘Japanese economics’ we do not of course mean some ‘Japanese economics’ which is different from the economics of the rest of the world. Such a thing does not exist, and it would be meaningless to attempt to construct it.

(Takeuchi 1987: 39)