This chapter shows that the struggle for equality and checking of power is central to republican political theory. Republican criminology achieves this because it replaces pessimism that nothing works in reducing crime with an optimistic vision. Reintegrative shaming is disapproval extended while a relationship of respect is sustained with the offender. Stigmatization is disrespectful, humiliating shaming where degradation ceremonies are never terminated by gestures of reacceptance of the offender. Seeking to bring crime under control by community shaming seems more benign than relying on the punitive state. The purpose of my book with Ian Ayres is to show how a creative synergy can be sustained between state regulation of business and public interest group activism. Republicans believe in individuation, because dominion is something individuals enjoy as individuals. For republicans, both individual isolation and engulfment by the group are evils. Individuation in a social world is secured by a system of social assurances, including rights.