This chapter investigates the counterarguments against the Humanitarian Initiative and the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). As the Humanitarian Initiative gathered further momentum, the nuclear weapon States’ counterarguments focused more specifically and almost exclusively on criticising the idea of a ban treaty. It surprises no one that the five States that officially possess nuclear weapons are the main objectors to the TPNW. Along with the nuclear umbrella States, they continue to challenge the efficacy of a treaty which was negotiated without them. Another frequently invoked criticism of a ban treaty is that it does not take security considerations into account. This point was and continues to be made in different variations by opponents of the TPNW. Opponents of the TPNW accuse it of undermining the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the entire disarmament and non-proliferation regime. Before the TPNW was negotiated, the opponents warned of a negative impact of the TPNW on the NPT.