The objective of this chapter is to reflect on the Indian state emergence and statebuilding and its National System of Innovation (NSI) from a broad Latin American perspective. The main contribution of the chapter is to give a broad understanding of the NSI emergence and its main features during the Cold War. In doing so, we discuss the Indian NSI co-evolution with the Indian statebuilding and, in more general terms, with different elements that influence innovation and competence building, such as geopolitics and inter-state competition, growth performance, colonial heritage, the external constrains, financing, social and political tensions, and so on. We introduce some reflections on both the Indian and the Latin American NSI configuration, their main actors, and challenges.