The sum total of this book not only adds breadth, depth, and continuity to the current understanding of horn teaching in Paris through the period, it also brings several performing practices into question, especially:

a conundrum involving the desired character of the stopped timbre on the natural horn—and how the “equality” of tone colors and singing quality promoted by all horn teachers at the Conservatoire can impact natural horn performance today;

another conundrum presented by the mix of hand technique and valve technology, promoted by Meifred and supported by others, to take advantage of the best each had to offer expressive performance of appropriate repertoire today.

By attending to these issues, today’s performers will be armed with approaches to both instruments in this transition that will allow for informed performances that also allow for nuanced and personalized expression.