ABSTRACT

Organizations operate in dynamic environments. With the rise of digital media, it gets easier to expose organizational misbehavior in a matter of minutes. Proactive crisis management is the key to successfully managing dynamic environments and ever-changing stakeholders’ expectations. Extreme crises are socially constructed and generate strong perceptions of moral outrage. Managers should be aware of triggers such as perceptions of greed and injustice which can lead to an extreme crises. When choosing an optimal or suboptimal crisis intervention, managers should employ evidence-based management.