ABSTRACT

In its early stages, the field of crisis communication was dominated by descriptive theories. Descriptive theories, such as apologia and image restoration theory (IRT), focus on examining case studies with an emphasis on identifying various crisis response strategies. On the other hand, prescriptive theories seek to predict the effect of one variable on another. Prescriptive theories in crisis communication include situational crisis communication theory and stealing thunder. These theories use experimental designs for testing the effects of a crisis intervention on outcome variables such as reputation and purchase intention. Ultimately, evidence-based management relies on empirical studies to unite theory and practice and provide meaningful recommendations for crisis practitioners.