ABSTRACT

Crisis management helps organizations to be more prepared for crisis situations. Proactive crisis management seeks to mitigate risks before they escalate to a crisis. Enterprise risk management (ERM) is a tool that helps organizations examine risk holistically. Issues management and reputation management are both parts of ERM. It monitors the environment that the organization operates in, while reputation management is concerned with stakeholder perceptions during a crisis. There are three main stages in the life cycle of a crisis, namely pre-crisis, crisis, and post-crisis. However, not all crises are alike. We use the regenerative model to explain when a crisis situation can become more complex and escalate to an extreme crises.