ABSTRACT

Crises can vary in their severity and intensity. We differentiate between common crises, which appear to be less intense, and extreme crises, which have high intensity. There are several variables that help distinguish between common and more severe, extreme crises. These include crisis responsibility, perceptions of moral outrage as well as the presence of racism. Extreme crises have unique communicative demands because they affect key elements of crisis management and crisis communication. Specifically, crisis interventions seem to be less effective following an extreme crises, and managers have to learn to distinguish and recognize when a crisis has the potential to become extreme.