Management misconduct and scansis are two types of extreme crises that have been found to significantly alter the effects of crisis communication. Both crisis types generate significant perceptions of moral outrage and, thus, change the dynamics of the crisis management and communication processes. Crisis interventions following management misconduct and scansis have very small effects on outcome variables such as reputation and negative word-of-mouth. Other factors that characterize extreme crises include race issues and employee reluctance to report unethical behavior at the workplace. Extreme crises are rather common and can sometimes be triggered by an inappropriate initial crisis response.