Haptics and proxemics are the twin poles of a contact continuum. Haptics, which is grounded in deep-seated and universal physical, psychological, intellectual, social, and health needs, includes the ways in which touch is used to express affiliation and affection or threat and aggression. Proxemics, which also has innate origins, concerns the use of interpersonal distancing, special arrangements and territory, as a means of communication. Both haptics and proxemics are greatly influenced by cultural norms and rules for their use and interpretation. They also vary according to sex/gender and personality. The types of touch and categories of interpersonal distancing constitute silent messages with distinct and powerful communicative meanings.