This chapter discusses the economic growth across 16 major states in India contributing 85 per cent to the national gross domestic product. The objective is to select a state having a contribution from the industrial sector as a major component of its gross state domestic product and then analyse the environmental performance, with a focus on water pollution, of that state. This is important as, in the current pursuit of achieving sustainable development goals, action has to be taken at the local level and, therefore, steps to arrest environmental degradation also need to be taken at the local level. The analysis leads to the selection of the state of Gujarat for further detailed study.