The polluted river stretches in the country are on a rise despite of all the laws enacted since 1974 to check water pollution. The communities suffering from pollution have resorted to filing public interest litigations in the higher courts to seek relief, as their representation to the authorities has not yielded any results. In this chapter, we have discussed many landmark legal cases of industrial water pollution and the judgements pronounced. The courts have upheld the right to a pollution-free environment as a fundamental right. The precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle, absolute liability principle and sustainable development principle have been cited by the courts and these have been discussed in the chapter. In recent years, the National Green Tribunal has been active in matters concerning environmental protection and important verdicts by it are also a part of this chapter.