The Sabarmati river water quality in Ahmedabad deteriorates completely downstream of the city, after receiving industrial effluents and sewage. This is even after the infrastructure has been created and has been in operation for almost 20 years to treat industrial effluents (in the form of common effluent treatment plants or CETPs) and sewage (in the form of sewage treatment plants or STPs). This questions the effective performance of the infrastructure. In this chapter, we have analysed the performance of the environmental infrastructure to treat water pollution. The purpose is to explore whether there is a link between the performance of this infrastructure and the poor water quality of the river. The data used is the unpublished GPCB data for the same period for which the Sabarmati river water quality has been analysed. It is observed that none of the CETPs are able to meet the prescribed standards for the treated industrial effluents and the levels of pollution in the treated effluents are way above the permissible standards. The pollution reduction efficiencies of the CETPs are abysmally low. This poor performance of the CETPs is irrespective of the capacity of the CETP or the number of member units or the kind of effluents (homogenous or heterogenous) being treated.