This chapter presents the theoretical background to important findings within the case studies discussed in Section 3 of this book, indicating a strong link between mother and daughter negative body image. The relational nature of body image is therefore explored through attachment theory, with particular reference to mirroring and attunement and the mother–daughter relationship. Contemporary research is presented suggesting that daughters see themselves through a distorted mirror – that of their mother’s own distorted body image. The influence of culture and the media on body image and ‘beauty’ is also discussed, in particular feelings of body-shame in girls and women caused by constant evaluations of themselves against current cultural idealistic body image ‘norms’ - i.e. impossibly thin, yet curvy bodies. The body-shame indicator of ‘covering up’ parts of the body is discussed, along with the health implications of a poor body image and the impact of aging, on the female body image, adding to the theoretical context for the phenomenological case study analysis. Finally, the importance of building self-compassion and resilience is highlighted as a way to counter feelings of guilt and shame, and improve body image.