This chapter explores to what extent climate change has encouraged both new water management practices and a reflexion on alternative development paradigms. Morocco is a semi-arid country in which the effects of climate change are severely felt through a rapidly increasing water stress which from 750 m3/h/year, 10 years ago, has now decreased to a very small 500 m3/h/year, putting the country in a situation of water penury. Whilst the government’s response has been to increase water supply, this approach is now being questioned. Both surface and groundwater resources are being overexploited. The lack of maintenance of dams has also led to siltation and ecological damages, making them inefficient. Besides, putting efforts into decreasing water demand, dealing with waste-water and improving citizens’ awareness is progressively generating a “new wave” of water consciousness directly related to the need for alternative development approaches. More than a mere natural–ecological or economic resource, water as heritage could contribute to development perspectives in a more socioecologically oriented type of economy. This type of approach would align better with indigenous approaches to natural resource management.