Starting from the current XXIst c. context and the Covid-19 pandemic, this conclusion looks both ahead and behind, positioning this book at a critical time in the history of water management in Morocco. Water management, core to this “development threshold”, will either lead to resilience and food security or social unrest and further inequalities. It is time for critical changes under desperate constraints. Reviewing the lessons drawn from this book, this conclusion establishes the following messages. From Part I, one concludes that the Berber’s water heritage, complex combination of practices, is well adapted to harsh physical conditions and situations in which conflicts could arise due to water scarcity. Although the Berber movement resulted in Amazigh language and culture being better recognized, it deserves a better place in strategic decision-making processes. Part II explores the modernization mechanisms that led to current water management practices and the social marginalization of the rural world. Climate change and socioeconomic constraints are questioning “development” in view of understanding better what sustainable water management means. Part III shows that alternative approaches to development, a combination of indigenous and new technologies and more participatory systems of water governance could help design the “appropriate water managementTS : we need a space here to separate the abstract from the actual text” systems of tomorrow.