ABSTRACT

Kant portrays the public sphere as one of unfettered and critical argument, that is, intellectual-critical freedom, for him, in the form of books, but now it could be refer to all media and digital platforms. Kant argues that restrictions of opinion and scholarly works and their publication is a form of censorship. There should be no harmonisation in the public sphere; there should simply be the space of public argument set apart from the spaces of the household, market and the state. Yet, Kant notices a tension between this and other kinds of freedom. In Kant’s view, a distinction between intellectual and political freedom is a clash between two types of freedom between a reflexive-critical notion of freedom and a political-cosmopolitan one. However, Kant’s claim for release from self-incurred tutelage is a broader one than only that of intellectual-critical or political freedoms. Blurred sketches of freedom evoke critical social spaces and Kant develops five of them that are indicative of the complexity of the modern world. These spaces are arguing in public spheres, in thinking critically about categories, creating aesthetics and reaching aesthetic judgements, in making republican politics, and developing good relations with oneself and with others.