This chapter investigates the pre-history of modern subjectivity by looking at not only the Hellenic sources of influence (Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides) but also the Abrahamic ones (the Book of Job), understanding them to be intertwined in Western modernity as a result of the influence of Augustine. It then analyzes how these traditions understood the relationship between human beings and the divine, which I argue can be viewed in terms of social scientific debates such as agency and structure. After which, it concludes with a discussion of the significance of the ancient and classical conceptualizations of the will, subjectivity, and agency for contemporary social science in thinking beyond intentionality.