Policy instruments are the means governments use to achieve their ends. Here we describe seven types of policy instrument:

advocacy—arguing a case

networks—working together to solve problems in the community

money—using spending and taxing powers

government action—delivering services

law—using legislative power

behavioural economics—using integrated psychological and economic principles regarding public behaviour

narrative—using storytelling to frame issues and solutions.

Good policy advice relies on choosing the right mix of instruments for the problem at hand.