The chapter presents the framework for the study and discussion in the whole book. Framed by Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological framework that considers the macro to micro levels of social engagement, Chan addresses the contentious question about why recognition of (non)religious identities and religious literacy is important by analysing the ideologies and theories about religious and non-religious identity and public diversity in: a number of United Nations’ (UN’s) declarations and conventions, Taylor’s open secularism, Eck’s pluralism, Ghosh’s critical multiculturalism, Habermas’ thoughts on faith and reason, Fraser’s participatory parity, Callan’s empathetic identification, and Hill Collins and Bilge’s intersectionality. By clarifying why a space for religious identities and religious understanding is important, this chapter prepares readers for the conversation on religious bullying and religious literacy in Chapters 3 and 4.