This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book describes public administration, a relatively new field of study that has become extremely important for our country. It deals with the comparative analysis of public administration systems in countries belonging to different civilizations and is aimed at identifying the in-depth reasons for which they have taken their present forms. The problem of structuring the activities of governmental bodies is now viewed not only from the perspective of enhancing the convenience of public services being offered to citizens but also as one of the factors that could contribute to the growth of the economy, which is vitally dependent upon an environment promoting the attraction of investments and the development of innovations. It is not only public civil servants who need to study the basic principles of government operation.