The most important distinction is the effects of (later) colonial control in the latter two continents and therefore the inevitable overlap between the economic and political activities of the labour movement. More generally, as Hyman has noted, it is often difficult to attempt to translate the perspectives of westernised industrial relations to the developing countries. Once the African and Asian territories had achieved independence from colonial rule a change took place in the attitude of government towards trade unions which were soon accorded a new and more closely-prescribed role. In this chapter, the authors have shown that because industrial relations is presumed to have a direct bearing on the development process, the role of the state has become notably obtrusive and pervading. In both countries unions have become increasingly bureaucratic, they have come to agree with employers on general areas of conflict resolution in industrial relations and government legislation has been vital for union recognition and development.