The political, regulatory, and institutional environment in which companies operate is fundamental to determine their performance. Business leaders and educators often ignore that the global context makes and breaks companies. The ability of nations to develop businesses, create jobs, and generate prosperity for their people is called “competitiveness.” This chapter introduces the main ideas in the book, such as the concept of competitiveness, the relevance of a country strategy, as well as the pillars of prosperity for the 21st century. Understanding these is key for policymakers, because they can design unique policies to transform their countries. But it is also important for business leaders, since understanding the main forces that shape corporate results is also a key ingredient of corporate leadership.