The social and political changes brought about by technology, globalization, and economic development are impacting the competitiveness agenda of countries. This part highlights the key themes that are emerging at the top of politicians’ agendas. They must be incorporated into national strategies for these to be accepted by people going forward. We start by describing a successful innovation ecosystem, as efficient combinations of talent, capital, and regulation. In that regard, special attention is given to Israel (the ‘Startup Nation’), Ukraine, and Hungary. These examples emphasize the importance of universities in innovation ecosystems. Competitiveness is not possible without technology, and this part analyzes the process of digital transformation at the country level, with Estonia and Turkey as best examples. On the social dimension, competitiveness policies will prioritize gender equality and sustainability. With respect to gender, Norway’s quota system is a good example. On the sustainability front, we argue that the Sustainable Development Goals are going to mark political developments in the coming decades, and this part presents several examples of how companies and the public sector are partnering to achieve the goals. Finally, the last part of the book discusses the effectiveness of public policy in view of the upcoming challenges that societies need to confront. We analyze the role of the government in resolving market failures; the ways education can cope with an uncertain future for jobs and pay; how new policy instruments can be used to curtail income inequality; and what the future of democracy is.