The treaties between the Malay rulers and the British established a new political system which partly replaced, and partly existed alongside, the previous organization. Such coexistence of two political organizations is inherently unstable, because it means the attempt of two powers to exercise the same type of generalized control of the same population and territory. In some spheres of Government, functions previously carried out through adat have been directly taken over by the modem executive. The most important of these is the administration of justice and the use of force. In the early days the activities of the administration were minimal, but in the course of time a comprehensive machinery of government has been created. Organization on the basis of territory, with trained officials, is more efficient than the use of kin-groups. Government policy in the villages is made effective through a hierarchy of officials under the District Officer and the State Government.