BESIDES the uniformity of outlook which prevailed among the administrators as a result of their training, selection and goals, standardized administrative procedure was laid down by successive dynasties in two compilations which together comprised the body of laws to which the bureaucracy throughout the Empire was required to give effect. The first of these, the collected Administrative Statutes of the dynasty (for the Manchu dynasty, Ta Ch’ing Hui Tien), laid down in detail the establishment and functions of all departments and offices throughout the Empire, and prescribed the sphere and extent of the activities they should undertake vis-à-vis the general public on one hand and official bodies on the other. The second compilation was what is usually known as the Penal Code of the dynasty (for the Manchu dynasty, Ta Ch’ing Lü Li) and prescribed the official action to be taken whenever the conduct of either officials or people failed to conform to what was required of them—by the official system. The lay-out of both compilations therefore reflected that of the government organization.