Now that we have familiarized ourselves with ten principles and four frameworks of secularism, we ask how these were “customized” in three countries: Turkey (which adopted the French model), Ethiopia (which adopted separationism), and China (which adopted the Soviet framework). Although the countries are very different, certain recurring patterns are noticeable. These include: the presence of an ancien regime, constitutional non-compliance, false neutrality claims, the role of ethnicity as a mediating variable, and autocratic one-party rule