Reviewing the claim that secularism is either dead or dying this chapter opens by asking what would replace secularism were it to expire. The replacements, it is argued, will still confront all of the problems that twenty centuries of secular theorizing have tried to resolve. From there we review our historical reconstruction of secularism asking what new questions and problems have been raised for future research. We close by stressing the lack of innovation in secular thought and suggesting a few pressing tasks for secularism as it enters its third millennia.