This chapter explores our second secular framework, French laïcité. Its roots in the French radical Enlightenment are traced with special attention to its emphasis on anticlerical and materialist ideas. The Revolution of 1789 and the reaction that was Napoleon’s reign are discussed in terms of their long-term creation of two warring Frances. We explore the 1905 law, describing it as a landmark event in the history of secularism. The chapter stresses laïcité’s tendency to control religion and discusses some contemporary controversies between the French state and its Muslim citizens.