Asperger syndrome is a name for a cluster of characteristics related to social awkwardness and chronic difficulties in understanding one’s own and others’ emotions and point of view that is found in some children and adults with average or above average intelligence. That syndrome, once a separate diagnosis, was eliminated from the diagnostic manual in 2013 and absorbed into the autism spectrum. This chapter describes Asperger syndrome and advocates for recognizing it as a distinctive subtype within the autism spectrum.