This chapter illustrates social work practice in group-based and community approaches. A conceptual basis for much of the group and community work approaches that social workers use can be developed through an understanding of concepts such as risk and wellbeing. The interconnections among risk, vulnerability and resilience in conceptualising preventive approaches and interpreting outcomes of interventions are complex. Contemporary understandings of mental wellbeing and recovery have emphasised the importance of recognising the dual continua – presence or absence of mental illness on one continuum and flourishing or languishing on a second continuum. A number of international conventions have emphasised the connections among social factors and health outcomes for communities. The creation of supportive social, cultural and physical environments is a key strategy for encouraging positive mental health in communities. Social support, strong social networks and a sense of integration and inclusion are key predictors of mental health.