Chapter 1 introduces the theme of the book. It argues that the relationship between religion and democracy for a long time was neglected in the literature and introduces Huntington’s claim that some religions provide a more fertile soil for democracy than others. It then tackles the issues of how religion should be defined and religious dominance operationalized. After this, attention is directed to the dependent variables of the study, whereby operationalizations of the degree of democracy and a measure of democratic stability are presented. Thereafter, a number of control variables are introduced and theoretically linked to the dependent variables. Finally, the chapter turns to the individual level, discussing the association between religious affiliation and democratic values in different religious and political contexts.