The chapter summarizes key findings and identifies this study’s most significant challenges to the paradiplomacy scholarship, as well as the China Studies literature. It restates the importance of paradiplomacy in the United States’ relations with divided China and—more generally—the wider world. It also throws light upon subnational agency, the concept of paradiplomacy as an institutional fact and federal-subnational contests over foreign policy and subnational authority to engage in global politics. Finally, the chapter critiques contemporaneous efforts to subordinate US states’ international action to the federal government’s direction and makes suggestions for further research.