Some hazardous substances are extremely toxic, capable of causing death even in small amounts; other substances that are much less toxic are likely to cause nothing more than a modest skin rash in most persons. Health disorders engendered by hazardous exported foods, pesticides, drugs, wastes and other products have attracted worldwide attention. In some cases, scientists are unsure of the effects of certain chemicals. This chapter presents examples that explain the devastating effects caused by hazardous exported foods, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and wastes. Since the advent of controls in developed countries there have been instances of the flight of several hazardous industries to the developing world. A large number of developing countries that import these chemicals are not in a position to effectively control the trade in chemicals that are banned or severely restricted in exporting countries. In order to elucidate the problem more clearly, the chapter investigates the trade in chemicals, foods, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and wastes in the last decade.