The concern British India had about the management of hazardous substances was considerable. During the British rule, much of the legislations governing hazardous substances were passed. This chapter analyzes and evaluates the major legislations on hazardous substances and the consequent rules adopted by the Government of India, for its effective regulation. It focuses on the law adopted by the British Government and the initiatives continued by the Indian Government on the subject. The chapter extensively covers the Insecticides Act of 1968 and the law on consumer protection. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 aims to provide better protection of the interests of consumers, and with this in view, to make provision for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for the settlement of consumers’ disputes. Most of the consumers are almost unrecognized, ignorant and negligent of their rights and are not capable of receiving expert advice, both legal and technical, unlike manufacturers.