In all three cases, the person's mindset determines the outcome. For more than 20 years, the author have aggregated data from the assessments of Disruptive Leaders who have reached the level of vice president or higher in the author client companies, with companies in five industries represented. On the abstract thinking and risk-taking measures, the leaders in the author study scored in the above-average range. People don't necessarily understand their own mindset, and they have even worse luck understanding the mindsets of others. When faced with a make-or-break decision, people demonstrate the kind of mindset they possess. A Disruptive Mindset-one that shapes resilience-recognizes that challenges aren't permanent; talented people can figure out problems; and even failure isn't fatal. Most of the reader have presumed, assumed, subsumed, and sometimes submerged the links between volatility and improvement.