Any discussion of conscious and unconscious biases, therefore, should start with his "tip of the iceberg" theory. Many of the beliefs the people have about ourselves develop early in life-derived from messages that have dropped into our unconscious and formed shortcuts, heuristics, and blind spots. In damaged organizations, unconscious biases commonly contradict the espoused values, causing confusion within and without the company. Conscious and unconscious biases play a role in constructing frames, sometimes to their benefit, often to their detriment. Global unconscious bias and inclusion expert Dr. Helen Turnbull warned against the dangers of these kinds of "blind spots" in decision-making. When people wrongly believe that nothing is improving, they may conclude that nothing they have tried so far works and lose confidence in things that actually do work.