In 1500 Scotland was a poor country with a small population and a backward, underdeveloped economy, impoverished by two centuries of war with England. In some respects Scotland had only recently emerged as a clearly defined nation state. The period from the sixteenth century to the end of the eighteenth saw increasing contact and progressive integration between Scotland and her wealthier, more powerful southern neighbour. In England there is an established tradition of interdisciplinary research into the landscape which has been undertaken by a variety of specialists and many highly skilled amateur fieldworkers. In Scotland the changes which occurred in the later eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were more revolutionary in character and more traces of the pre-existing landscape were swept away. To an even greater degree the landscape itself still holds innumerable fascinating puzzles which more detailed research work may help to solve.