This chapter reviews the impact on the landscape of a number of Scotland’s most significant industries from the sixteenth to the end of the eighteenth centuries. In Scotland coal occurs among the strata of the carboniferous period in a diagonal belt across the Midland Valley from Ayrshire and north Lanark-shire to the Lothians and Fife. Smaller outcrops around Sanquhar in Nithsdale, Canonbie in Dumfriesshire, Campbeltown in Argyll and Brora in Sutherland have also been worked. By the early seventeenth century improved mining and drainage technology from England and Flanders was being applied at some collieries, allowing deeper seams to be worked. From the 1760s the whole scale and character of mining was transformed. Steam engines were used much more widely for pumping and for winding coal to the surface. Scottish salt making declined in the nineteenth century with growing competition from Cheshire rock salt.