ABSTRACT

The influence and role of sending states in labour migration remain poorly specified and theorised, with research often focusing on the migration policies of receiving states and theories grounded in social and economic forces that leave little room for political interventions. This chapter examines contesting theories that seek to explain the determinants of migration and the varying role of the state within this process, employing Lee’s tripartite typology to illustrate how the Philippines and Sri Lanka intervene to promote and shape the volume and direction of migration and remittance flows. It argues that their preference for market-driven regulations, at the expense of the welfare and rights of women domestic workers, creates an enabling environment for exploitation by recruitment agencies and employers, described as state-sanctioned structural violence. The chapter concludes by presenting a rights-based intersectional framework, along with its theoretical underpinnings, as necessary to improve migrant domestic worker protection throughout the entire migration process, developed and examined in Chapter 3.