This chapter covers the principles of structuring and designing. Creating the most effective structure and design for a document is crucial. Writers need to know how readers make sense of text and graphics. The art and science of integrating writing and design—shaping verbal and visual language—has come to be known as ‘information architecture’, a term the architect and designer Saul Wurman coined in 1975.

The first part of the chapter presents many structuring devices that are helpful for writers: flow charts, mind maps, issue trees, matrixes, and numbered outlines. A further section covers outlining on a computer.

The second part of the chapter covers principle of information design, including typography and layout and illustrative material such as charts, tables, and infographics. Further information covers how to brief a designer and a list of recommended design sites on the internet.