The concluding chapter, on ‘next steps’, begins with an emotive call to address the writing gap for the millions who leave school as functionally illiterate. The author shares a personal family anecdote that describes the real issue of functional illiteracy and the damaging limitations of being unable to write. To better understand the issue, the chapter goes on to characterise how best to assess writing. Without sensitive diagnostic assessment, teachers cannot support struggling writers. Practical assessment approaches are shared to support teachers and school leaders. There is a related exploration of the importance of feedback to support writing development, including the value of peer feedback, which relates back to the importance of writing for an audience and considering the needs of the audience. The final section of the book characterises the transformative power of writing. It ends with reiterating the seven steps targeted at addressing the writing gap that ended the introduction.