This chapter discusses some of the theoretical implications for discourses on transformative adaptation. Before it does so, the chapter first presents why adaptation is an inherently political concept. This section also reflects upon the need for self-critical adaptation studies. Because the empirical cases reveal the significance of education and power for local adaptation processes related to vulnerable populations, knowledge and questions of social justice are presented as a fundamental aspect for transformative adaptation. The subsequent chapter explores the role of the state in addressing transformative adaptation from this perspective. Higher hanging fruits include educational reform and enabling access to education and the production of different kinds of knowledge. Lower hanging fruits include the early and constant inclusion of vulnerable populations in the adaptation policy cycle. Aside from the need to constantly validate, who is vulnerable and why, and understanding vulnerability dynamically, academic scholarship on the matter needs to also adjust by making transparent the underlying assumption of used vulnerability categories. The chapter ends with the argument that in order for some lock-ins to be addressed, a reform of the way political administrations and organizations work may become necessary, as these institutions appear to have only limited capacity for dealing with issues of greater complexity, such as social vulnerability.