Because the empirical cases both identified lock-ins at the interface of knowledge and political institutions, this chapter discusses the findings in the newly emerging field of research on political epistemology. First, vulnerability as an inherent characteristic of two different political systems is presented. The findings demonstrate the deeply entangled nature of large-scale adaptation deficits at the local level and co-created social vulnerability. For this reason, the book challenges the argument that China’s environmental authoritarian structures are better equipped in dealing with matters related to climate change (adaptation). For the same reason, it challenges the argument that liberal democracies are better suited in dealing with social justice issues, as is commonly assumed. Next, the analytical framework of lock-ins is revisited, the main findings presented and conceptualized as political epistemological lock-ins. Their different facets are discussed by drawing from literature in the field. They relate to 1) one-sided epistemic agency when determining vulnerability, 2) path-dependent political legacies of educational opportunities and 3) ideology in science. The last part briefly reflects on knowledge as an indicator for the manifestation of a class-based society. In both cases, access to knowledge and education became visible as class-based phenomena, which link to future economic and political opportunities.