The closing chapter summarises the book’s main findings and offers several avenues for future research into the brutalisation paradigm. It argues that the brutalisation paradigm can match, if not outperform the hearts and minds approach when there is little to no chance of persuading the population to relinquish the insurgents and side with the incumbent. If made compliant with International Humanitarian Law principles, the techniques employed by counterinsurgents following the brutalisation paradigm can find application within the strategic toolkit of Western counterinsurgents. This chapter calls for further research into this long-ignored, yet widely employed variant of population-centric COIN warfare.